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authorScott Rifenbark <scott.m.rifenbark@intel.com>2013-01-16 23:49:14 (GMT)
committerRichard Purdie <richard.purdie@linuxfoundation.org>2013-01-27 13:56:02 (GMT)
commit82928e228bc438f7693097786e00cb26eb914758 (patch)
tree4df15bcc735c7af2061dc8fff776fcdad3888044 /documentation/profile-manual
parent41fe45977ce4bcecbd963176aea0637a86e3c224 (diff)
downloadpoky-82928e228bc438f7693097786e00cb26eb914758.tar.gz
profile-manual: Added ftrace section to the manual.
No re-writing, no clean up what-so-ever. It is simply in the DocBook form. (From yocto-docs rev: 3d2c17c076b67c3e2ab094d0562038e422b63d44) Signed-off-by: Scott Rifenbark <scott.m.rifenbark@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Richard Purdie <richard.purdie@linuxfoundation.org>
Diffstat (limited to 'documentation/profile-manual')
-rw-r--r--documentation/profile-manual/profile-manual-usage.xml664
1 files changed, 664 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/documentation/profile-manual/profile-manual-usage.xml b/documentation/profile-manual/profile-manual-usage.xml
index 12323ed..a35a112 100644
--- a/documentation/profile-manual/profile-manual-usage.xml
+++ b/documentation/profile-manual/profile-manual-usage.xml
@@ -1340,6 +1340,670 @@
1340 </para> 1340 </para>
1341 </section> 1341 </section>
1342</section> 1342</section>
1343
1344<section id='profile-manual-ftrace'>
1345 <title>ftrace</title>
1346
1347 <para>
1348 'ftrace' literally refers to the 'ftrace function tracer' but in
1349 reality this encompasses a number of related tracers along with
1350 the infrastructure that they all make use of.
1351 </para>
1352
1353 <section id='ftrace-setup'>
1354 <title>Setup</title>
1355
1356 <para>
1357 For this section, we'll assume you've already performed the basic
1358 setup outlined in the General Setup section.
1359 </para>
1360
1361 <para>
1362 ftrace, trace-cmd, and kernelshark run on the target system,
1363 and are ready to go out-of-the-box - no additional setup is
1364 necessary. For the rest of this section we assume you've ssh'ed
1365 to the host and will be running ftrace on the target. kernelshark
1366 is a GUI application and if you use the '-X' option to ssh you
1367 can have the kernelshark GUI run on the target but display
1368 remotely on the host if you want.
1369 </para>
1370 </section>
1371
1372 <section id='basic-ftrace-usage'>
1373 <title>Basic ftrace usage</title>
1374
1375 <para>
1376 'ftrace' essentially refers to everything included in
1377 the /tracing directory of the mounted debugfs filesystem
1378 (Yocto follows the standard convention and mounts it
1379 at /sys/kernel/debug). Here's a listing of all the files
1380 found in /sys/kernel/debug/tracing on a Yocto system.:
1381 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
1382 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing# ls
1383 README kprobe_events trace
1384 available_events kprobe_profile trace_clock
1385 available_filter_functions options trace_marker
1386 available_tracers per_cpu trace_options
1387 buffer_size_kb printk_formats trace_pipe
1388 buffer_total_size_kb saved_cmdlines tracing_cpumask
1389 current_tracer set_event tracing_enabled
1390 dyn_ftrace_total_info set_ftrace_filter tracing_on
1391 enabled_functions set_ftrace_notrace tracing_thresh
1392 events set_ftrace_pid
1393 free_buffer set_graph_function
1394 </literallayout>
1395 The files listed above are used for various purposes -
1396 some relate directly to the tracers themselves, others are
1397 used to set tracing options, and yet others actually contain
1398 the tracing output when a tracer is in effect. Some of the
1399 functions can be guessed from their names, others need
1400 explanation; in any case, we'll cover some of the files we
1401 see here below but for an explanation of the others, please
1402 see the ftrace documentation.
1403 </para>
1404
1405 <para>
1406 We'll start by looking at some of the available built-in
1407 tracers.
1408 </para>
1409
1410 <para>
1411 cat'ing the 'available_tracers' file lists the set of
1412 available tracers:
1413 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
1414 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing# cat available_tracers
1415 blk function_graph function nop
1416 </literallayout>
1417 The 'current_tracer' file contains the tracer currently in
1418 effect:
1419 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
1420 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing# cat current_tracer
1421 nop
1422 </literallayout>
1423 The above listing of current_tracer shows that
1424 the 'nop' tracer is in effect, which is just another
1425 way of saying that there's actually no tracer
1426 currently in effect.
1427 </para>
1428
1429 <para>
1430 echo'ing one of the available_tracers into current_tracer
1431 makes the specified tracer the current tracer:
1432 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
1433 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing# echo function > current_tracer
1434 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing# cat current_tracer
1435 function
1436 </literallayout>
1437 The above sets the current tracer to be the
1438 'function tracer'. This tracer traces every function
1439 call in the kernel and makes it available as the
1440 contents of the 'trace' file. Reading the 'trace' file
1441 lists the currently buffered function calls that have been
1442 traced by the function tracer:
1443 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
1444 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing# cat trace | less
1445
1446 # tracer: function
1447 #
1448 # entries-in-buffer/entries-written: 310629/766471 #P:8
1449 #
1450 # _-----=&gt; irqs-off
1451 # / _----=&gt; need-resched
1452 # | / _---=&gt; hardirq/softirq
1453 # || / _--=&gt; preempt-depth
1454 # ||| / delay
1455 # TASK-PID CPU# |||| TIMESTAMP FUNCTION
1456 # | | | |||| | |
1457 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d..1 470.867169: ktime_get_real &lt;-intel_idle
1458 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d..1 470.867170: getnstimeofday &lt;-ktime_get_real
1459 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d..1 470.867171: ns_to_timeval &lt;-intel_idle
1460 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d..1 470.867171: ns_to_timespec &lt;-ns_to_timeval
1461 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d..1 470.867172: smp_apic_timer_interrupt &lt;-apic_timer_interrupt
1462 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d..1 470.867172: native_apic_mem_write &lt;-smp_apic_timer_interrupt
1463 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d..1 470.867172: irq_enter &lt;-smp_apic_timer_interrupt
1464 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d..1 470.867172: rcu_irq_enter &lt;-irq_enter
1465 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d..1 470.867173: rcu_idle_exit_common.isra.33 &lt;-rcu_irq_enter
1466 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d..1 470.867173: local_bh_disable &lt;-irq_enter
1467 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d..1 470.867173: add_preempt_count &lt;-local_bh_disable
1468 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d.s1 470.867174: tick_check_idle &lt;-irq_enter
1469 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d.s1 470.867174: tick_check_oneshot_broadcast &lt;-tick_check_idle
1470 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d.s1 470.867174: ktime_get &lt;-tick_check_idle
1471 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d.s1 470.867174: tick_nohz_stop_idle &lt;-tick_check_idle
1472 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d.s1 470.867175: update_ts_time_stats &lt;-tick_nohz_stop_idle
1473 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d.s1 470.867175: nr_iowait_cpu &lt;-update_ts_time_stats
1474 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d.s1 470.867175: tick_do_update_jiffies64 &lt;-tick_check_idle
1475 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d.s1 470.867175: _raw_spin_lock &lt;-tick_do_update_jiffies64
1476 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d.s1 470.867176: add_preempt_count &lt;-_raw_spin_lock
1477 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d.s2 470.867176: do_timer &lt;-tick_do_update_jiffies64
1478 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d.s2 470.867176: _raw_spin_lock &lt;-do_timer
1479 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d.s2 470.867176: add_preempt_count &lt;-_raw_spin_lock
1480 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d.s3 470.867177: ntp_tick_length &lt;-do_timer
1481 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [004] d.s3 470.867177: _raw_spin_lock_irqsave &lt;-ntp_tick_length
1482 .
1483 .
1484 .
1485 </literallayout>
1486 Each line in the trace above shows what was happening in
1487 the kernel on a given cpu, to the level of detail of
1488 function calls. Each entry shows the function called,
1489 followed by its caller (after the arrow).
1490 </para>
1491
1492 <para>
1493 The function tracer gives you an extremely detailed idea
1494 of what the kernel was doing at the point in time the trace
1495 was taken, and is a great way to learn about how the kernel
1496 code works in a dynamic sense.
1497 </para>
1498
1499 <note>
1500 Tying It Together: The ftrace function tracer is also
1501 available from within perf, as the ftrace:function tracepoint.
1502 </note>
1503
1504 <para>
1505 It is a little more difficult to follow the call chains than
1506 it needs to be - luckily there's a variant of the function
1507 tracer that displays the callchains explicitly, called the
1508 'function_graph' tracer:
1509 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
1510 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing# echo function_graph &gt; current_tracer
1511 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing# cat trace | less
1512
1513 tracer: function_graph
1514
1515 CPU DURATION FUNCTION CALLS
1516 | | | | | | |
1517 7) 0.046 us | pick_next_task_fair();
1518 7) 0.043 us | pick_next_task_stop();
1519 7) 0.042 us | pick_next_task_rt();
1520 7) 0.032 us | pick_next_task_fair();
1521 7) 0.030 us | pick_next_task_idle();
1522 7) | _raw_spin_unlock_irq() {
1523 7) 0.033 us | sub_preempt_count();
1524 7) 0.258 us | }
1525 7) 0.032 us | sub_preempt_count();
1526 7) + 13.341 us | } /* __schedule */
1527 7) 0.095 us | } /* sub_preempt_count */
1528 7) | schedule() {
1529 7) | __schedule() {
1530 7) 0.060 us | add_preempt_count();
1531 7) 0.044 us | rcu_note_context_switch();
1532 7) | _raw_spin_lock_irq() {
1533 7) 0.033 us | add_preempt_count();
1534 7) 0.247 us | }
1535 7) | idle_balance() {
1536 7) | _raw_spin_unlock() {
1537 7) 0.031 us | sub_preempt_count();
1538 7) 0.246 us | }
1539 7) | update_shares() {
1540 7) 0.030 us | __rcu_read_lock();
1541 7) 0.029 us | __rcu_read_unlock();
1542 7) 0.484 us | }
1543 7) 0.030 us | __rcu_read_lock();
1544 7) | load_balance() {
1545 7) | find_busiest_group() {
1546 7) 0.031 us | idle_cpu();
1547 7) 0.029 us | idle_cpu();
1548 7) 0.035 us | idle_cpu();
1549 7) 0.906 us | }
1550 7) 1.141 us | }
1551 7) 0.022 us | msecs_to_jiffies();
1552 7) | load_balance() {
1553 7) | find_busiest_group() {
1554 7) 0.031 us | idle_cpu();
1555 .
1556 .
1557 .
1558 4) 0.062 us | msecs_to_jiffies();
1559 4) 0.062 us | __rcu_read_unlock();
1560 4) | _raw_spin_lock() {
1561 4) 0.073 us | add_preempt_count();
1562 4) 0.562 us | }
1563 4) + 17.452 us | }
1564 4) 0.108 us | put_prev_task_fair();
1565 4) 0.102 us | pick_next_task_fair();
1566 4) 0.084 us | pick_next_task_stop();
1567 4) 0.075 us | pick_next_task_rt();
1568 4) 0.062 us | pick_next_task_fair();
1569 4) 0.066 us | pick_next_task_idle();
1570 ------------------------------------------
1571 4) kworker-74 =&gt; &lt;idle&gt;-0
1572 ------------------------------------------
1573
1574 4) | finish_task_switch() {
1575 4) | _raw_spin_unlock_irq() {
1576 4) 0.100 us | sub_preempt_count();
1577 4) 0.582 us | }
1578 4) 1.105 us | }
1579 4) 0.088 us | sub_preempt_count();
1580 4) ! 100.066 us | }
1581 .
1582 .
1583 .
1584 3) | sys_ioctl() {
1585 3) 0.083 us | fget_light();
1586 3) | security_file_ioctl() {
1587 3) 0.066 us | cap_file_ioctl();
1588 3) 0.562 us | }
1589 3) | do_vfs_ioctl() {
1590 3) | drm_ioctl() {
1591 3) 0.075 us | drm_ut_debug_printk();
1592 3) | i915_gem_pwrite_ioctl() {
1593 3) | i915_mutex_lock_interruptible() {
1594 3) 0.070 us | mutex_lock_interruptible();
1595 3) 0.570 us | }
1596 3) | drm_gem_object_lookup() {
1597 3) | _raw_spin_lock() {
1598 3) 0.080 us | add_preempt_count();
1599 3) 0.620 us | }
1600 3) | _raw_spin_unlock() {
1601 3) 0.085 us | sub_preempt_count();
1602 3) 0.562 us | }
1603 3) 2.149 us | }
1604 3) 0.133 us | i915_gem_object_pin();
1605 3) | i915_gem_object_set_to_gtt_domain() {
1606 3) 0.065 us | i915_gem_object_flush_gpu_write_domain();
1607 3) 0.065 us | i915_gem_object_wait_rendering();
1608 3) 0.062 us | i915_gem_object_flush_cpu_write_domain();
1609 3) 1.612 us | }
1610 3) | i915_gem_object_put_fence() {
1611 3) 0.097 us | i915_gem_object_flush_fence.constprop.36();
1612 3) 0.645 us | }
1613 3) 0.070 us | add_preempt_count();
1614 3) 0.070 us | sub_preempt_count();
1615 3) 0.073 us | i915_gem_object_unpin();
1616 3) 0.068 us | mutex_unlock();
1617 3) 9.924 us | }
1618 3) + 11.236 us | }
1619 3) + 11.770 us | }
1620 3) + 13.784 us | }
1621 3) | sys_ioctl() {
1622 </literallayout>
1623 As you can see, the function_graph display is much easier to
1624 follow. Also note that in addition to the function calls and
1625 associated braces, other events such as scheduler events
1626 are displayed in context. In fact, you can freely include
1627 any tracepoint available in the trace events subsystem described
1628 in the next section by simply enabling those events, and they'll
1629 appear in context in the function graph display. Quite a
1630 powerful tool for understanding kernel dynamics.
1631 </para>
1632
1633 <para>
1634 Also notice that there are various annotations on the left
1635 hand side of the display. For example if the total time it
1636 took for a given function to execute is above a certain
1637 threshold, and exclamation point or plus sign appears on the
1638 left hand side. Please see the ftrace documentation for
1639 details on all these fields.
1640 </para>
1641 </section>
1642
1643 <section id='the-trace-events-subsystem'>
1644 <title>The 'trace events' Subsystem</title>
1645
1646 <para>
1647 One especially important directory contained within
1648 the /sys/kernel/debug/tracing directory is the 'events'
1649 subdirectory, which contains representations of every
1650 tracepoint in the system. Listing out the contents of
1651 the 'events' subdirectory, we see mainly another set of
1652 subdirectories:
1653 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
1654 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing# cd events
1655 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/events# ls -al
1656 drwxr-xr-x 38 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 .
1657 drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 ..
1658 drwxr-xr-x 19 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 block
1659 drwxr-xr-x 32 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 btrfs
1660 drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 drm
1661 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 enable
1662 drwxr-xr-x 40 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 ext3
1663 drwxr-xr-x 79 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 ext4
1664 drwxr-xr-x 14 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 ftrace
1665 drwxr-xr-x 8 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 hda
1666 -r--r--r-- 1 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 header_event
1667 -r--r--r-- 1 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 header_page
1668 drwxr-xr-x 25 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 i915
1669 drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 irq
1670 drwxr-xr-x 12 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 jbd
1671 drwxr-xr-x 14 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 jbd2
1672 drwxr-xr-x 14 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 kmem
1673 drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 module
1674 drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 napi
1675 drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 net
1676 drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 oom
1677 drwxr-xr-x 12 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 power
1678 drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 printk
1679 drwxr-xr-x 8 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 random
1680 drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 raw_syscalls
1681 drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 rcu
1682 drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 rpm
1683 drwxr-xr-x 20 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 sched
1684 drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 scsi
1685 drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 signal
1686 drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 skb
1687 drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 sock
1688 drwxr-xr-x 10 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 sunrpc
1689 drwxr-xr-x 538 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 syscalls
1690 drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 task
1691 drwxr-xr-x 14 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 timer
1692 drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 udp
1693 drwxr-xr-x 21 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 vmscan
1694 drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 vsyscall
1695 drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 workqueue
1696 drwxr-xr-x 26 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 writeback
1697 </literallayout>
1698 Each one of these subdirectories corresponds to a
1699 'subsystem' and contains yet again more subdirectories,
1700 each one of those finally corresponding to a tracepoint.
1701 For example, here are the contents of the 'kmem' subsystem:
1702 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
1703 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/events# cd kmem
1704 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/events/kmem# ls -al
1705 drwxr-xr-x 14 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 .
1706 drwxr-xr-x 38 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 ..
1707 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 enable
1708 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 filter
1709 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 kfree
1710 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 kmalloc
1711 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 kmalloc_node
1712 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 kmem_cache_alloc
1713 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 kmem_cache_alloc_node
1714 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 kmem_cache_free
1715 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 mm_page_alloc
1716 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 mm_page_alloc_extfrag
1717 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 mm_page_alloc_zone_locked
1718 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 mm_page_free
1719 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 mm_page_free_batched
1720 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 mm_page_pcpu_drain
1721 </literallayout>
1722 Let's see what's inside the subdirectory for a specific
1723 tracepoint, in this case the one for kmalloc:
1724 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
1725 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/events/kmem# cd kmalloc
1726 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/events/kmem/kmalloc# ls -al
1727 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 .
1728 drwxr-xr-x 14 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 ..
1729 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 enable
1730 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 filter
1731 -r--r--r-- 1 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 format
1732 -r--r--r-- 1 root root 0 Nov 14 23:19 id
1733 </literallayout>
1734 The 'format' file for the tracepoint describes the event
1735 in memory, which is used by the various tracing tools
1736 that now make use of these tracepoint to parse the event
1737 and make sense of it, along with a 'print fmt' field that
1738 allows tools like ftrace to display the event as text.
1739 Here's what the format of the kmalloc event looks like:
1740 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
1741 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/events/kmem/kmalloc# cat format
1742 name: kmalloc
1743 ID: 313
1744 format:
1745 field:unsigned short common_type; offset:0; size:2; signed:0;
1746 field:unsigned char common_flags; offset:2; size:1; signed:0;
1747 field:unsigned char common_preempt_count; offset:3; size:1; signed:0;
1748 field:int common_pid; offset:4; size:4; signed:1;
1749 field:int common_padding; offset:8; size:4; signed:1;
1750
1751 field:unsigned long call_site; offset:16; size:8; signed:0;
1752 field:const void * ptr; offset:24; size:8; signed:0;
1753 field:size_t bytes_req; offset:32; size:8; signed:0;
1754 field:size_t bytes_alloc; offset:40; size:8; signed:0;
1755 field:gfp_t gfp_flags; offset:48; size:4; signed:0;
1756
1757 print fmt: "call_site=%lx ptr=%p bytes_req=%zu bytes_alloc=%zu gfp_flags=%s", REC->call_site, REC->ptr, REC->bytes_req, REC->bytes_alloc,
1758 (REC->gfp_flags) ? __print_flags(REC->gfp_flags, "|", {(unsigned long)(((( gfp_t)0x10u) | (( gfp_t)0x40u) | (( gfp_t)0x80u) | ((
1759 gfp_t)0x20000u) | (( gfp_t)0x02u) | (( gfp_t)0x08u)) | (( gfp_t)0x4000u) | (( gfp_t)0x10000u) | (( gfp_t)0x1000u) | (( gfp_t)0x200u) | ((
1760 gfp_t)0x400000u)), "GFP_TRANSHUGE"}, {(unsigned long)((( gfp_t)0x10u) | (( gfp_t)0x40u) | (( gfp_t)0x80u) | (( gfp_t)0x20000u) | ((
1761 gfp_t)0x02u) | (( gfp_t)0x08u)), "GFP_HIGHUSER_MOVABLE"}, {(unsigned long)((( gfp_t)0x10u) | (( gfp_t)0x40u) | (( gfp_t)0x80u) | ((
1762 gfp_t)0x20000u) | (( gfp_t)0x02u)), "GFP_HIGHUSER"}, {(unsigned long)((( gfp_t)0x10u) | (( gfp_t)0x40u) | (( gfp_t)0x80u) | ((
1763 gfp_t)0x20000u)), "GFP_USER"}, {(unsigned long)((( gfp_t)0x10u) | (( gfp_t)0x40u) | (( gfp_t)0x80u) | (( gfp_t)0x80000u)), GFP_TEMPORARY"},
1764 {(unsigned long)((( gfp_t)0x10u) | (( gfp_t)0x40u) | (( gfp_t)0x80u)), "GFP_KERNEL"}, {(unsigned long)((( gfp_t)0x10u) | (( gfp_t)0x40u)),
1765 "GFP_NOFS"}, {(unsigned long)((( gfp_t)0x20u)), "GFP_ATOMIC"}, {(unsigned long)((( gfp_t)0x10u)), "GFP_NOIO"}, {(unsigned long)((
1766 gfp_t)0x20u), "GFP_HIGH"}, {(unsigned long)(( gfp_t)0x10u), "GFP_WAIT"}, {(unsigned long)(( gfp_t)0x40u), "GFP_IO"}, {(unsigned long)((
1767 gfp_t)0x100u), "GFP_COLD"}, {(unsigned long)(( gfp_t)0x200u), "GFP_NOWARN"}, {(unsigned long)(( gfp_t)0x400u), "GFP_REPEAT"}, {(unsigned
1768 long)(( gfp_t)0x800u), "GFP_NOFAIL"}, {(unsigned long)(( gfp_t)0x1000u), "GFP_NORETRY"}, {(unsigned long)(( gfp_t)0x4000u), "GFP_COMP"},
1769 {(unsigned long)(( gfp_t)0x8000u), "GFP_ZERO"}, {(unsigned long)(( gfp_t)0x10000u), "GFP_NOMEMALLOC"}, {(unsigned long)(( gfp_t)0x20000u),
1770 "GFP_HARDWALL"}, {(unsigned long)(( gfp_t)0x40000u), "GFP_THISNODE"}, {(unsigned long)(( gfp_t)0x80000u), "GFP_RECLAIMABLE"}, {(unsigned
1771 long)(( gfp_t)0x08u), "GFP_MOVABLE"}, {(unsigned long)(( gfp_t)0), "GFP_NOTRACK"}, {(unsigned long)(( gfp_t)0x400000u), "GFP_NO_KSWAPD"},
1772 {(unsigned long)(( gfp_t)0x800000u), "GFP_OTHER_NODE"} ) : "GFP_NOWAIT"
1773 </literallayout>
1774 The 'enable' file in the tracepoint directory is what allows
1775 the user (or tools such as trace-cmd) to actually turn the
1776 tracepoint on and off. When enabled, the corresponding
1777 tracepoint will start appearing in the ftrace 'trace'
1778 file described previously. For example, this turns on the
1779 kmalloc tracepoint:
1780 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
1781 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/events/kmem/kmalloc# echo 1 > enable
1782 </literallayout>
1783 At the moment, we're not interested in the function tracer or
1784 some other tracer that might be in effect, so we first turn
1785 it off, but if we do that, we still need to turn tracing on in
1786 order to see the events in the output buffer:
1787 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
1788 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing# echo nop > current_tracer
1789 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing# echo 1 > tracing_on
1790 </literallayout>
1791 Now, if we look at the the 'trace' file, we see nothing
1792 but the kmalloc events we just turned on:
1793 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
1794 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing# cat trace | less
1795 # tracer: nop
1796 #
1797 # entries-in-buffer/entries-written: 1897/1897 #P:8
1798 #
1799 # _-----=&gt; irqs-off
1800 # / _----=&gt; need-resched
1801 # | / _---=&gt; hardirq/softirq
1802 # || / _--=&gt; preempt-depth
1803 # ||| / delay
1804 # TASK-PID CPU# |||| TIMESTAMP FUNCTION
1805 # | | | |||| | |
1806 dropbear-1465 [000] ...1 18154.620753: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff816650d4 ptr=ffff8800729c3000 bytes_req=2048 bytes_alloc=2048 gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL
1807 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [000] ..s3 18154.621640: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff81619b36 ptr=ffff88006d555800 bytes_req=512 bytes_alloc=512 gfp_flags=GFP_ATOMIC
1808 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [000] ..s3 18154.621656: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff81619b36 ptr=ffff88006d555800 bytes_req=512 bytes_alloc=512 gfp_flags=GFP_ATOMIC
1809 matchbox-termin-1361 [001] ...1 18154.755472: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff81614050 ptr=ffff88006d5f0e00 bytes_req=512 bytes_alloc=512 gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL|GFP_REPEAT
1810 Xorg-1264 [002] ...1 18154.755581: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff8141abe8 ptr=ffff8800734f4cc0 bytes_req=168 bytes_alloc=192 gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL|GFP_NOWARN|GFP_NORETRY
1811 Xorg-1264 [002] ...1 18154.755583: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff814192a3 ptr=ffff88001f822520 bytes_req=24 bytes_alloc=32 gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL|GFP_ZERO
1812 Xorg-1264 [002] ...1 18154.755589: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff81419edb ptr=ffff8800721a2f00 bytes_req=64 bytes_alloc=64 gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL|GFP_ZERO
1813 matchbox-termin-1361 [001] ...1 18155.354594: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff81614050 ptr=ffff88006db35400 bytes_req=576 bytes_alloc=1024 gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL|GFP_REPEAT
1814 Xorg-1264 [002] ...1 18155.354703: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff8141abe8 ptr=ffff8800734f4cc0 bytes_req=168 bytes_alloc=192 gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL|GFP_NOWARN|GFP_NORETRY
1815 Xorg-1264 [002] ...1 18155.354705: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff814192a3 ptr=ffff88001f822520 bytes_req=24 bytes_alloc=32 gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL|GFP_ZERO
1816 Xorg-1264 [002] ...1 18155.354711: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff81419edb ptr=ffff8800721a2f00 bytes_req=64 bytes_alloc=64 gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL|GFP_ZERO
1817 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [000] ..s3 18155.673319: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff81619b36 ptr=ffff88006d555800 bytes_req=512 bytes_alloc=512 gfp_flags=GFP_ATOMIC
1818 dropbear-1465 [000] ...1 18155.673525: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff816650d4 ptr=ffff8800729c3000 bytes_req=2048 bytes_alloc=2048 gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL
1819 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [000] ..s3 18155.674821: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff81619b36 ptr=ffff88006d554800 bytes_req=512 bytes_alloc=512 gfp_flags=GFP_ATOMIC
1820 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [000] ..s3 18155.793014: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff81619b36 ptr=ffff88006d554800 bytes_req=512 bytes_alloc=512 gfp_flags=GFP_ATOMIC
1821 dropbear-1465 [000] ...1 18155.793219: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff816650d4 ptr=ffff8800729c3000 bytes_req=2048 bytes_alloc=2048 gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL
1822 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [000] ..s3 18155.794147: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff81619b36 ptr=ffff88006d555800 bytes_req=512 bytes_alloc=512 gfp_flags=GFP_ATOMIC
1823 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [000] ..s3 18155.936705: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff81619b36 ptr=ffff88006d555800 bytes_req=512 bytes_alloc=512 gfp_flags=GFP_ATOMIC
1824 dropbear-1465 [000] ...1 18155.936910: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff816650d4 ptr=ffff8800729c3000 bytes_req=2048 bytes_alloc=2048 gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL
1825 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [000] ..s3 18155.937869: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff81619b36 ptr=ffff88006d554800 bytes_req=512 bytes_alloc=512 gfp_flags=GFP_ATOMIC
1826 matchbox-termin-1361 [001] ...1 18155.953667: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff81614050 ptr=ffff88006d5f2000 bytes_req=512 bytes_alloc=512 gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL|GFP_REPEAT
1827 Xorg-1264 [002] ...1 18155.953775: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff8141abe8 ptr=ffff8800734f4cc0 bytes_req=168 bytes_alloc=192 gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL|GFP_NOWARN|GFP_NORETRY
1828 Xorg-1264 [002] ...1 18155.953777: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff814192a3 ptr=ffff88001f822520 bytes_req=24 bytes_alloc=32 gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL|GFP_ZERO
1829 Xorg-1264 [002] ...1 18155.953783: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff81419edb ptr=ffff8800721a2f00 bytes_req=64 bytes_alloc=64 gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL|GFP_ZERO
1830 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [000] ..s3 18156.176053: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff81619b36 ptr=ffff88006d554800 bytes_req=512 bytes_alloc=512 gfp_flags=GFP_ATOMIC
1831 dropbear-1465 [000] ...1 18156.176257: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff816650d4 ptr=ffff8800729c3000 bytes_req=2048 bytes_alloc=2048 gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL
1832 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [000] ..s3 18156.177717: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff81619b36 ptr=ffff88006d555800 bytes_req=512 bytes_alloc=512 gfp_flags=GFP_ATOMIC
1833 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [000] ..s3 18156.399229: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff81619b36 ptr=ffff88006d555800 bytes_req=512 bytes_alloc=512 gfp_flags=GFP_ATOMIC
1834 dropbear-1465 [000] ...1 18156.399434: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff816650d4 ptr=ffff8800729c3000 bytes_http://rostedt.homelinux.com/kernelshark/req=2048 bytes_alloc=2048 gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL
1835 &lt;idle&gt;-0 [000] ..s3 18156.400660: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff81619b36 ptr=ffff88006d554800 bytes_req=512 bytes_alloc=512 gfp_flags=GFP_ATOMIC
1836 matchbox-termin-1361 [001] ...1 18156.552800: kmalloc: call_site=ffffffff81614050 ptr=ffff88006db34800 bytes_req=576 bytes_alloc=1024 gfp_flags=GFP_KERNEL|GFP_REPEAT
1837 </literallayout>
1838 To again disable the kmalloc event, we need to send 0 to the
1839 enable file:
1840 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
1841 root@sugarbay:/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/events/kmem/kmalloc# echo 0 > enable
1842 </literallayout>
1843 You can enable any number of events or complete subsystems
1844 (by using the 'enable' file in the subsystem directory) and
1845 get am arbitrarily fine-grained idea of what's going on in the
1846 system by enabling as many of the appropriate tracepoints
1847 as applicable.
1848 </para>
1849
1850 <para>
1851 A number of the tools described in this HOWTO do just that,
1852 including trace-cmd and kernelshark in the next section.
1853 </para>
1854
1855 <note>
1856 Tying It Together: These tracepoints and their representation
1857 are used not only by ftrace, but by many of the other tools
1858 covered in this document and they form a central point of
1859 integration for the various tracers available in Linux.
1860 They form a central part of the instrumentation for the
1861 following tools: perf, lttng, ftrace, blktrace and SystemTap
1862 </note>
1863
1864 <note>
1865 Tying It Together: Eventually all the special-purpose tracers
1866 currently available in /sys/kernel/debug/tracing will be
1867 removed and replaced with equivalent tracers based on the
1868 'trace events' subsystem.
1869 </note>
1870 </section>
1871
1872 <section id='trace-cmd-kernelshark'>
1873 <title>trace-cmd/kernelshark</title>
1874
1875 <para>
1876 trace-cmd is essentially an extensive command-line 'wrapper'
1877 interface that hides the details of all the individual files
1878 in /sys/kernel/debug/tracing, allowing users to specify
1879 specific particular events within the
1880 /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/events/ subdirectory and to collect
1881 traces and avoiding having to deal with those details directly.
1882 </para>
1883
1884 <para>
1885 As yet another layer on top of that, kernelshark provides a GUI
1886 that allows users to start and stop traces and specify sets
1887 of events using an intuitive interface, and view the
1888 output as both trace events and as a per-cpu graphical
1889 display. It directly uses 'trace-cmd' as the plumbing
1890 that accomplishes all that underneath the covers (and
1891 actually displays the trace-cmd command it uses, as we'll see).
1892 </para>
1893
1894 <para>
1895 To start a trace using kernelshark, first start kernelshark:
1896 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
1897 root@sugarbay:~# kernelshark
1898 </literallayout>
1899 The bring up the 'Capture' dialog by choosing from the
1900 kernelshark menu:
1901 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
1902 Capture | Record
1903 </literallayout>
1904 That will display the following dialog, which allows you to
1905 choose on or more events (or even one or more complete
1906 subsystems) to trace:
1907 </para>
1908
1909 <para>
1910 <imagedata fileref="figures/kernelshark-choose-events.png" width="6in" depth="7in" align="center" scalefit="1" />
1911 </para>
1912
1913 <para>
1914 Note that these are exactly the same set of events described
1915 in the previous trace events subsystem section, and in fact
1916 is where trace-cmd gets them for kernelshark.
1917 </para>
1918
1919 <para>
1920 In the above screenshot, we've decided to explore the
1921 graphics subsystem a bit and so have chosen to trace all
1922 the tracepoints contained within the 'i915' and 'drm'
1923 subsystems.
1924 </para>
1925
1926 <para>
1927 After doing that, we can start and stop the trace using
1928 the 'Run' and 'Stop' button on the lower right corner of
1929 the dialog (the same button will turn into the 'Stop'
1930 button after the trace has started):
1931 </para>
1932
1933 <para>
1934 <imagedata fileref="figures/kernelshark-output-display.png" width="6in" depth="7in" align="center" scalefit="1" />
1935 </para>
1936
1937 <para>
1938 Notice that the right-hand pane shows the exact trace-cmd
1939 command-line that's used to run the trace, along with the
1940 results of the trace-cmd run.
1941 </para>
1942
1943 <para>
1944 Once the 'Stop' button is pressed, the graphical view magically
1945 fills up with a colorful per-cpu display of the trace data,
1946 along with the detailed event listing below that:
1947 </para>
1948
1949 <para>
1950 <imagedata fileref="figures/kernelshark-i915-display.png" width="6in" depth="7in" align="center" scalefit="1" />
1951 </para>
1952
1953 <para>
1954 Here's another example, this time a display resulting
1955 from tracing 'all events':
1956 </para>
1957
1958 <para>
1959 <imagedata fileref="figures/kernelshark-all.png" width="6in" depth="7in" align="center" scalefit="1" />
1960 </para>
1961
1962 <para>
1963 The tool is pretty self-explanatory, but for more detailed
1964 information on navigating through the data, see the
1965 <ulink url='http://rostedt.homelinux.com/kernelshark/'>kernelshark website</ulink>.
1966 </para>
1967 </section>
1968
1969 <section id='ftrace-documentation'>
1970 <title>Documentation</title>
1971
1972 <para>
1973 The documentation for ftrace can be found in the kernel
1974 Documentation directory:
1975 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
1976 Documentation/trace/ftrace.txt
1977 </literallayout>
1978 The documentation for the trace event subsystem can also
1979 be found in the kernel Documentation directory:
1980 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
1981 Documentation/trace/events.txt
1982 </literallayout>
1983 There are a nice series of articles on using
1984 ftrace and trace-cmd at LWN:
1985 <itemizedlist>
1986 <listitem><para><ulink url='http://lwn.net/Articles/365835/'>Debugging the kernel using Ftrace - part 1</ulink>
1987 </para></listitem>
1988 <listitem><para><ulink url='http://lwn.net/Articles/366796/'>Debugging the kernel using Ftrace - part 2</ulink>
1989 </para></listitem>
1990 <listitem><para><ulink url='https://lwn.net/Articles/410200/'>trace-cmd: A front-end for Ftrace</ulink>
1991 </para></listitem>
1992 </itemizedlist>
1993 </para>
1994
1995 <para>
1996 There's more detailed documentation kernelshark usage here:
1997 <ulink url='http://rostedt.homelinux.com/kernelshark/'>KernelShark</ulink>
1998 </para>
1999
2000 <para>
2001 An amusing yet useful README (a tracing mini-HOWTO) can be
2002 found in /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/README.
2003 </para>
2004 </section>
2005</section>
2006
1343</chapter> 2007</chapter>
1344<!-- 2008<!--
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