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3 GNU Free Documentation License
4 Version 1.3, 3 November 2008
7 Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
8 <>
9 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
10 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
14The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
15functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
16assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
17with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
18Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
19to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
20for modifications made by others.
22This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
23works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
24complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
25license designed for free software.
27We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
28software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
29program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
30software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;
31it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
32whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
33principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
38This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
39contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
40distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a
41world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
42work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below,
43refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a
44licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you
45copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
46under copyright law.
48A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
49Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
50modifications and/or translated into another language.
52A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
53the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
54publishers or authors of the Document to the Document`s overall
55subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall
56directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in
57part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain
58any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
59connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
60commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
63The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
64are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
65that says that the Document is released under this License. If a
66section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not
67allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero
68Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant
69Sections then there are none.
71The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,
72as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
73the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may
74be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
76A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
77represented in a format whose specification is available to the
78general public, that is suitable for revising the document
79straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
80pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
81drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
82for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
83to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
84format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart
85or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
86An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount
87of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
89Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
90ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
91or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
92HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of
93transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats
94include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
95proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
96processing tools are not generally available, and the
97machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
98processors for output purposes only.
100The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
101plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
102this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in
103formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means
104the text near the most prominent appearance of the work`s title,
105preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
107The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies of
108the Document to the public.
110A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose
111title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
112text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a
113specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements",
114"Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title"
115of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
116section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.
118The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
119states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty
120Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
121License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
122implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
123no effect on the meaning of this License.
127You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
128commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
129copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
130to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no
131other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use
132technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
133copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept
134compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough
135number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
137You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
138you may publicly display copies.
143If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
144printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
145Document`s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
146copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
147Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
148the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
149you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present
150the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
151visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
152Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
153the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
154as verbatim copying in other respects.
156If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
157legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
158reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
161If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
162more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
163copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
164a computer-network location from which the general network-using
165public has access to download using public-standard network protocols
166a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.
167If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,
168when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure
169that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
170location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an
171Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
172edition to the public.
174It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
175Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to
176give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the
182You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
183the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
184the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
185Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
186and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
187of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
189A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
190 from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
191 (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
192 of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version
193 if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
194B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
195 responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
196 Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
197 Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
198 unless they release you from this requirement.
199C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
200 Modified Version, as the publisher.
201D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
202E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
203 adjacent to the other copyright notices.
204F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
205 giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
206 terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
207G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
208 and required Cover Texts given in the Document`s license notice.
209H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
210I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add
211 to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
212 publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
213 there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one
214 stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
215 given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
216 Version as stated in the previous sentence.
217J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
218 public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
219 the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
220 it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section.
221 You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
222 least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
223 publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
224K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
225 Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
226 the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
227 and/or dedications given therein.
228L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
229 unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers
230 or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
231M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section
232 may not be included in the Modified Version.
233N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements"
234 or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
235O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
237If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
238appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
239copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
240of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the
241list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version`s license notice.
242These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
244You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
245nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
246parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
247been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
250You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
251passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
252of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
253Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
254through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
255includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
256by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
257you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
258permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
260The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
261give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
262imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
267You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
268License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
269versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
270Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
271list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
272license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
274The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
275multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
276copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
277different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
278adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
279author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
280Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
281Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
283In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History"
284in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
285"History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements",
286and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections
287Entitled "Endorsements".
292You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
293documents released under this License, and replace the individual
294copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
295that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules
296of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all
297other respects.
299You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
300distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a
301copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this
302License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that
308A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
309and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
310distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright
311resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
312of the compilation`s users beyond what the individual works permit.
313When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
314apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
315derivative works of the Document.
317If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
318copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
319the entire aggregate, the Document`s Cover Texts may be placed on
320covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
321electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
322Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
328Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
329distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
330Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
331permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
332translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
333original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
334translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
335Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
336the original English version of this License and the original versions
337of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between
338the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
339or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
341If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
342"Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
343its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
349You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
350except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
351otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and
352will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
354However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license
355from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally,
356unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally
357terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder
358fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to
35960 days after the cessation.
361Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
362reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
363violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
364received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that
365copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after
366your receipt of the notice.
368Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the
369licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under
370this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently
371reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does
372not give you any rights to use it.
377The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the
378GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions
379will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in
380detail to address new problems or concerns. See
383Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
384If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
385License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
386following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
387of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
388Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
389number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
390as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document
391specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this
392License can be used, that proxy`s public statement of acceptance of a
393version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the
398"Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
399World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
400provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A
401public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A
402"Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the site
403means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.
405"CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
406license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
407corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
408California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
409published by that same organization.
411"Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in
412part, as part of another Document.
414An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
415License, and if all works that were first published under this License
416somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or
417in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and
418(2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.
420The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site
421under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009,
422provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.
425ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
427To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
428the License in the document and put the following copyright and
429license notices just after the title page:
431 Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.
432 Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
433 under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
434 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
435 with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
436 A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
437 Free Documentation License".
439If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
440replace the "with...Texts." line with this:
442 with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
443 Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
445If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
446combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
449If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
450recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
451free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
452to permit their use in free software.