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1<!DOCTYPE chapter PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN"
3[<!ENTITY % poky SYSTEM "../poky.ent"> %poky; ] >
5<article id='intro'>
6 <articleinfo>
7 <title>Yocto Project Quick Start</title>
9 <copyright>
10 <year>&COPYRIGHT_YEAR;</year>
11 <holder>Linux Foundation</holder>
12 </copyright>
14 <legalnotice>
15 <para>
16 Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under
17 the terms of the <ulink type="http" url="">Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England &amp; Wales</ulink> as published by Creative Commons.
18 </para>
19 <note>
20 For the latest version of this manual associated with this
21 Yocto Project release, see the
22 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_QS_URL;'>Yocto Project Quick Start</ulink>
23 from the Yocto Project website.
24 </note>
25 </legalnotice>
28 <abstract>
29 <imagedata fileref="figures/yocto-project-transp.png"
30 width="6in" depth="1in"
31 align="right" scale="25" />
32 </abstract>
33 </articleinfo>
35<section id='welcome'>
36 <title>Welcome!</title>
37 <para>
38 Welcome to the Yocto Project!
39 The Yocto Project is an open-source collaboration project focused on
40 embedded Linux developers.
41 Among other things, the Yocto Project uses a build system based on the
42 OpenEmbedded (OE) project, which uses the
43 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#bitbake-term'>BitBake</ulink>
44 tool, to construct complete Linux images.
45 The BitBake and OE components are combined together to form
46 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#poky'>Poky</ulink>,
47 a reference build system.
48 </para>
50 <para>
51 If you don't have a system that runs Linux and you want to give the Yocto Project a test run,
52 you might consider using the Yocto Project Build Appliance.
53 The Build Appliance allows you to build and boot a custom embedded Linux image with the Yocto
54 Project using a non-Linux development system.
55 See the <ulink url=''>Yocto
56 Project Build Appliance</ulink> for more information.
57 </para>
59 <para>
60 On the other hand, if you know all about open-source development, Linux development environments,
61 Git source repositories and the like and you just want some quick information that lets you try out
62 the Yocto Project on your Linux system, skip right to the
63 "<link linkend='super-user'>Super User</link>" section at the end of this quick start.
64 </para>
66 <para>
67 For the rest of you, this short document will give you some basic information about the environment and
68 let you experience it in its simplest form.
69 After reading this document, you will have a basic understanding of what the Yocto Project is
70 and how to use some of its core components.
71 This document steps you through a simple example showing you how to build a small image
72 and run it using the Quick EMUlator (QEMU emulator).
73 </para>
75 <para>
76 For more detailed information on the Yocto Project, you should check out these resources:
77 <itemizedlist>
78 <listitem><para><emphasis>Website:</emphasis> The <ulink url='&YOCTO_HOME_URL;'>Yocto Project Website</ulink>
79 provides the latest builds, breaking news, full development documentation, and a rich Yocto
80 Project Development Community into which you can tap.
81 </para></listitem>
82 <listitem><para><emphasis>FAQs:</emphasis> Lists commonly asked Yocto Project questions and answers.
83 You can find two FAQs: <ulink url='&YOCTO_WIKI_URL;/wiki/FAQ'>Yocto Project FAQ</ulink> on
84 a wiki, and the
85 "<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#faq'>FAQ</ulink>" chapter in
86 the Yocto Project Reference Manual.
87 </para></listitem>
88 <listitem><para><emphasis>Developer Screencast:</emphasis> The
89 <ulink url=''>Getting Started with the Yocto Project - New
90 Developer Screencast Tutorial</ulink> provides a 30-minute video
91 created for users unfamiliar with the Yocto Project but familiar
92 with Linux build systems.</para></listitem>
93 </itemizedlist>
94 </para>
97<section id='yp-intro'>
98 <title>Introducing the Yocto Project Development Environment</title>
99 <para>
100 The Yocto Project through the OpenEmbedded build system provides an open source development
101 environment targeting the ARM, MIPS, PowerPC and x86 architectures for a variety of
102 platforms including x86-64 and emulated ones.
103 You can use components from the Yocto Project to design, develop, build, debug, simulate,
104 and test the complete software stack using Linux, the X Window System, GNOME Mobile-based
105 application frameworks, and Qt frameworks.
106 </para>
108 <mediaobject>
109 <imageobject>
110 <imagedata fileref="figures/yocto-environment.png"
111 format="PNG" align='center' scalefit='1' width="100%"/>
112 </imageobject>
113 <caption>
114 <para>The Yocto Project Development Environment</para>
115 </caption>
116 </mediaobject>
118 <para>
119 Here are some highlights for the Yocto Project:
120 </para>
122 <itemizedlist>
123 <listitem>
124 <para>Provides a recent Linux kernel along with a set of system commands and libraries suitable for the embedded environment.</para>
125 </listitem>
126 <listitem>
127 <para>Makes available system components such as X11, GTK+, Qt, Clutter, and SDL
128 (among others) so you can create a rich user experience on devices
129 that have display hardware.
130 For devices that do not have a display or where you wish to use alternative UI
131 frameworks, these components need not be installed.</para>
132 </listitem>
133 <listitem>
134 <para>Creates a focused and stable core compatible with the OpenEmbedded
135 project with which you can easily and reliably build and develop.</para>
136 </listitem>
137 <listitem>
138 <para>Fully supports a wide range of hardware and device emulation through the QEMU
139 Emulator.</para>
140 </listitem>
141 </itemizedlist>
143 <para>
144 The Yocto Project can generate images for many kinds of devices.
145 However, the standard example machines target QEMU full-system emulation for x86, x86-64, ARM, MIPS,
146 and PPC-based architectures as well as specific hardware such as the
147 <trademark class='registered'>Intel</trademark> Desktop Board DH55TC.
148 Because an image developed with the Yocto Project can boot inside a QEMU emulator, the
149 development environment works nicely as a test platform for developing embedded software.
150 </para>
152 <para>
153 Another important Yocto Project feature is the Sato reference User Interface.
154 This optional GNOME mobile-based UI, which is intended for devices with
155 restricted screen sizes, sits neatly on top of a device using the
156 GNOME Mobile Stack and provides a well-defined user experience.
157 Implemented in its own layer, it makes it clear to developers how they can implement
158 their own user interface on top of a Linux image created with the Yocto Project.
159 </para>
162<section id='yp-resources'>
163 <title>What You Need and How You Get It</title>
165 <para>
166 You need these things to develop projects in the Yocto Project
167 environment:
168 </para>
170 <itemizedlist>
171 <listitem>
172 <para>A host system running a supported Linux distribution
173 (i.e. recent releases of Fedora, openSUSE, CentOS, Debian,
174 and Ubuntu).
175 If the host system supports multiple cores and threads, you can configure the
176 Yocto Project build system to decrease the time needed to build images
177 significantly.
178 </para>
179 </listitem>
180 <listitem>
181 <para>The right packages.</para>
182 </listitem>
183 <listitem>
184 <para>A release of the Yocto Project.</para>
185 </listitem>
186 </itemizedlist>
188 <section id='the-linux-distro'>
189 <title>The Linux Distribution</title>
191 <para>
192 The Yocto Project team is continually verifying more and more Linux
193 distributions with each release.
194 In general, if you have the current release minus one of the following
195 distributions you should have no problems.
196 <itemizedlist>
197 <listitem><para>Ubuntu</para></listitem>
198 <listitem><para>Fedora</para></listitem>
199 <listitem><para>openSUSE</para></listitem>
200 <listitem><para>CentOS</para></listitem>
201 <listitem><para>Debian</para></listitem>
202 </itemizedlist>
203 For a more detailed list of distributions that support the Yocto Project,
204 see the
205 "<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#detailed-supported-distros'>Supported Linux Distributions</ulink>" section
206 in the Yocto Project Reference Manual.
207 </para>
208 <para>
209 The OpenEmbedded build system should be able to run on any modern
210 distribution that has the following versions for Git, tar, and
211 Python.
212 <itemizedlist>
213 <listitem><para>Git 1.7.5 or greater</para></listitem>
214 <listitem><para>tar 1.24 or greater</para></listitem>
215 <listitem><para>Python 2.7.3 or greater excluding Python
216 3.x, which is not supported.</para></listitem>
217 </itemizedlist>
218 Earlier releases of Python are known to not work and the
219 system does not support Python 3 at this time.
220 If your system does not meet any of these three listed
221 version requirements, you can
222 take steps to prepare the system so that you can still use the build
223 system.
224 See the
225 "<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#required-git-tar-and-python-versions'>Required Git, tar, and Python Versions</ulink>"
226 section in the Yocto Project Reference Manual for information.
227 </para>
228 <para>
229 This document assumes you are running one of the previously noted
230 distributions on your Linux-based host systems.
231 </para>
232 <note>
233 <para>
234 If you attempt to use a distribution not in the above list,
235 you may or may not have success.
236 Yocto Project releases are tested against the stable Linux
237 distributions listed in the
238 "<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#detailed-supported-distros'>Supported Linux Distributions</ulink>"
239 section of the Yocto Project Reference Manual.
240 If you encounter problems, please go to
241 <ulink url='&YOCTO_BUGZILLA_URL;'>Yocto Project Bugzilla</ulink>
242 and submit a bug.
243 We are interested in hearing about your experience.
244 </para>
245 </note>
246 </section>
248 <section id='packages'>
249 <title>The Packages</title>
251 <para>
252 Packages and package installation vary depending on your development system
253 and on your intent.
254 For example, if you want to build an image that can run
255 on QEMU in graphical mode (a minimal, basic build
256 requirement), then the number of packages is different than if you want to
257 build an image on a headless system or build out the Yocto Project
258 documentation set.
259 Collectively, the number of required packages is large
260 if you want to be able to cover all cases.
261 <note>In general, you need to have root access and then install the
262 required packages.
263 Thus, the commands in the following section may or may not work
264 depending on whether or not your Linux distribution has
265 <filename>sudo</filename> installed.</note>
266 </para>
268 <para>
269 The next few sections list, by supported Linux Distributions, the required
270 packages needed to build an image that runs on QEMU in graphical mode
271 (e.g. essential plus graphics support).
272 </para>
274 <para>
275 For lists of required packages for other scenarios, see the
276 "<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#required-packages-for-the-host-development-system'>Required Packages for the Host Development System</ulink>"
277 section in the Yocto Project Reference Manual.
278 </para>
280 <section id='ubuntu'>
281 <title>Ubuntu and Debian</title>
283 <para>
284 The essential and graphical support packages you need for a
285 supported Ubuntu or Debian distribution are shown in the
286 following command:
287 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
288 $ sudo apt-get install &UBUNTU_HOST_PACKAGES_ESSENTIAL; libsdl1.2-dev xterm
289 </literallayout>
290 </para>
291 </section>
293 <section id='fedora'>
294 <title>Fedora</title>
296 <para>
297 The essential and graphical packages you need for a supported
298 Fedora distribution are shown in the following command:
299 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
300 $ sudo yum install &FEDORA_HOST_PACKAGES_ESSENTIAL; SDL-devel xterm
301 </literallayout>
302 </para>
303 </section>
305 <section id='opensuse'>
306 <title>OpenSUSE</title>
308 <para>
309 The essential and graphical packages you need for a supported
310 OpenSUSE distribution are shown in the following command:
311 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
312 $ sudo zypper install &OPENSUSE_HOST_PACKAGES_ESSENTIAL; libSDL-devel xterm
313 </literallayout>
314 </para>
315 </section>
317 <section id='centos'>
318 <title>CentOS</title>
320 <para>
321 The essential and graphical packages you need for a supported
322 CentOS distribution are shown in the following command:
323 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
324 $ sudo yum install &CENTOS_HOST_PACKAGES_ESSENTIAL; SDL-devel xterm
325 </literallayout>
326 <note>Depending on the CentOS version you are using, other requirements
327 and dependencies might exist.
328 For details, you should look at the CentOS sections on the
329 <ulink url=''>Poky/GettingStarted/Dependencies</ulink>
330 wiki page.</note>
331 </para>
332 </section>
333 </section>
335 <section id='releases'>
336 <title>Yocto Project Release</title>
338 <para>
339 It is recommended that you get the latest Yocto Project files
340 by setting up (cloning in
341 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#git'>Git</ulink> terms) a local
342 copy of the
343 <filename>poky</filename> Git repository on your host development
344 system.
345 Doing so allows you to contribute back to the Yocto Project project.
346 For information on how to get set up using this method, see the
347 "<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#local-yp-release'>Yocto
348 Project Release</ulink>" item in the Yocto Project Development Manual.
349 </para>
351 <para>
352 You can also get the Yocto Project Files by downloading
353 Yocto Project releases from the
354 <ulink url="&YOCTO_HOME_URL;">Yocto Project website</ulink>.
355 From the website, you just click "Downloads" in the navigation pane
356 to the left to display all Yocto Project downloads.
357 Current and archived releases are available for download.
358 Nightly and developmental builds are also maintained at
359 <ulink url="&YOCTO_AB_NIGHTLY_URL;"></ulink>.
360 However, for this document a released version of Yocto Project is used.
361 </para>
363 </section>
366<section id='test-run'>
367 <title>A Quick Test Run</title>
369 <para>
370 Now that you have your system requirements in order, you can give the Yocto Project a try.
371 This section presents some steps that let you do the following:
372 </para>
374 <itemizedlist>
375 <listitem>
376 <para>
377 Build an image and run it in the QEMU emulator.
378 </para>
379 </listitem>
380 <listitem>
381 <para>
382 Use a pre-built image and run it in the QEMU emulator.
383 </para>
384 </listitem>
385 </itemizedlist>
387 <section id='building-image'>
388 <title>Building an Image</title>
390 <para>
391 In the development environment you will need to build an image whenever you change hardware
392 support, add or change system libraries, or add or change services that have dependencies.
393 </para>
395 <mediaobject>
396 <imageobject>
397 <imagedata fileref="figures/building-an-image.png" format="PNG" align='center' scalefit='1'/>
398 </imageobject>
399 <caption>
400 <para>Building an Image</para>
401 </caption>
402 </mediaobject>
404 <para>
405 Use the following commands to build your image.
406 The OpenEmbedded build process creates an entire Linux distribution, including the toolchain,
407 from source.
408 </para>
410 <note><para>
411 The build process using Sato currently consumes about 50GB of disk space.
412 To allow for variations in the build process and for future package expansion, we
413 recommend having at least 50 Gbytes of free disk space.
414 </para></note>
416 <note>
417 <para>
418 By default, the build process searches for source code using
419 a pre-determined order through a set of locations.
420 If you encounter problems with the build process finding and
421 downloading source code, see the
422 "<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#how-does-the-yocto-project-obtain-source-code-and-will-it-work-behind-my-firewall-or-proxy-server'>How does the OpenEmbedded build system obtain source code and will it work behind my firewall or proxy server?</ulink>"
423 entry in the Yocto Project Reference Manual FAQ.
424 </para>
425 </note>
427 <para>
428 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
429 $ git clone &YOCTO_GIT_URL;/git/poky
430 $ cd poky
431 $ git checkout -b &DISTRO_NAME; origin/&DISTRO_NAME;
432 $ source &OE_INIT_FILE;
433 </literallayout>
434 </para>
436 <tip>
437 <para>
438 To help conserve disk space during builds, you can add the
439 following statement to your project's configuration file,
440 which for this example is
441 <filename>poky/build/conf/local.conf</filename>.
442 Adding this statement deletes the work directory used for
443 building a package once the package is built.
444 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
445 INHERIT += "rm_work"
446 </literallayout>
447 </para>
448 </tip>
450 <itemizedlist>
451 <listitem><para>In the previous example, the first command uses
452 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#git'>Git</ulink> to create
453 a local repository named <filename>poky</filename> that is a
454 clone of the upstream Yocto Project
455 <filename>poky</filename> repository.</para></listitem>
456 <listitem><para>The third command checks out a local branch and
457 names it <filename>&DISTRO_NAME;</filename>.
458 The local branch tracks the upstream branch of the same name.
459 Creating your own branch based on the released branch ensures
460 you are using the latest files for that release.
461 </para></listitem>
462 <listitem><para>
463 The final command runs the Yocto Project
464 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#structure-core-script'><filename>&OE_INIT_FILE;</filename></ulink>
465 environment setup script.
466 Running this script defines OpenEmbedded build environment
467 settings needed to complete the build.
468 The script also creates the
469 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#build-directory'>Build Directory</ulink>,
470 which is <filename>build</filename> in this case and is located
471 in the
472 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#source-directory'>Source Directory</ulink>.
473 After the script runs, your current working directory is set
474 to the Build Directory.
475 Later, when the build completes, the Build Directory contains
476 all the files created during the build.
477 <note>
478 For information on running a memory-resident
479 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#usingpoky-components-bitbake'>BitBake</ulink>,
480 see the
481 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#structure-memres-core-script'><filename>oe-init-build-env-memres</filename></ulink>
482 setup script.
483 </note></para></listitem>
484 </itemizedlist>
485 <para>
486 Take some time to examine your <filename>local.conf</filename> file
487 in your project's configuration directory, which is found in the Build Directory.
488 The defaults in that file should work fine.
489 However, there are some variables of interest at which you might look.
490 </para>
492 <para>
493 By default, the target architecture for the build is <filename>qemux86</filename>,
494 which produces an image that can be used in the QEMU emulator and is targeted at an
495 <trademark class='registered'>Intel</trademark> 32-bit based architecture.
496 To change this default, edit the value of the
497 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#var-MACHINE'><filename>MACHINE</filename></ulink>
498 variable in the configuration file before launching the build.
499 </para>
501 <para>
502 Another couple of variables of interest are the
503 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#var-BB_NUMBER_THREADS'><filename>BB_NUMBER_THREADS</filename></ulink> and the
504 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#var-PARALLEL_MAKE'><filename>PARALLEL_MAKE</filename></ulink> variables.
505 By default, these variables are set to how ever many processor
506 cores your build host uses.
507 However, if your build host uses multiple processor cores,
508 you should increase these settings to twice the number of
509 cores used.
510 Doing so can significantly shorten your build time.
511 </para>
513 <para>
514 Another consideration before you build is the package manager used when creating
515 the image.
516 By default, the OpenEmbedded build system uses the RPM package manager.
517 You can control this configuration by using the
518 <filename><ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#var-PACKAGE_CLASSES'><filename>PACKAGE_CLASSES</filename></ulink></filename> variable.
519 For additional package manager selection information, see the
520 "<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#ref-classes-package'><filename>package*.bbclass</filename></ulink>"
521 section in the Yocto Project Reference Manual.
522 </para>
524 <para>
525 Continue with the following command to build an OS image for the target, which is
526 <filename>core-image-sato</filename> in this example.
527 For information on the <filename>-k</filename> option use the
528 <filename>bitbake --help</filename> command, see the
529 "<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#usingpoky-components-bitbake'>BitBake</ulink>"
530 section in the Yocto Project Reference Manual, or see the
531 "<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_BB_URL;#user-manual-command'>BitBake Command</ulink>"
532 section in the BitBake User Manual.
533 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
534 $ bitbake -k core-image-sato
535 </literallayout>
536 <note>
537 BitBake requires Python 2.6 or 2.7. For more information on
538 this requirement, see the
539 "<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#required-git-tar-and-python-versions'>Required Git, tar, and Python</ulink>"
540 section in the Yocto Project Reference Manual.
541 </note>
542 The final command runs the image:
543 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
544 $ runqemu qemux86
545 </literallayout>
546 <note>
547 <para>
548 Depending on the number of processors and cores, the amount
549 of RAM, the speed of your Internet connection and other
550 factors, the build process could take several hours the
551 first time you run it.
552 Subsequent builds run much faster since parts of the build
553 are cached.
554 </para>
555 </note>
556 </para>
557 </section>
559 <section id='using-pre-built'>
560 <title>Using Pre-Built Binaries and QEMU</title>
562 <para>
563 If hardware, libraries and services are stable, you can get started by using a pre-built binary
564 of the filesystem image, kernel, and toolchain and run it using the QEMU emulator.
565 This scenario is useful for developing application software.
566 </para>
568 <mediaobject>
569 <imageobject>
570 <imagedata fileref="figures/using-a-pre-built-image.png" format="PNG" align='center' scalefit='1'/>
571 </imageobject>
572 <caption>
573 <para>Using a Pre-Built Image</para>
574 </caption>
575 </mediaobject>
577 <para>
578 For this scenario, you need to do several things:
579 </para>
581 <itemizedlist>
582 <listitem><para>Install the appropriate stand-alone toolchain tarball.</para></listitem>
583 <listitem><para>Download the pre-built image that will boot with QEMU.
584 You need to be sure to get the QEMU image that matches your target machine’s
585 architecture (e.g. x86, ARM, etc.).</para></listitem>
586 <listitem><para>Download the filesystem image for your target machine's architecture.
587 </para></listitem>
588 <listitem><para>Set up the environment to emulate the hardware and then start the QEMU emulator.
589 </para></listitem>
590 </itemizedlist>
592 <section id='installing-the-toolchain'>
593 <title>Installing the Toolchain</title>
595 <para>
596 You can download a tarball installer, which includes the
597 pre-built toolchain, the <filename>runqemu</filename>
598 script, and support files from the appropriate directory under
599 <ulink url='&YOCTO_TOOLCHAIN_DL_URL;'></ulink>.
600 Toolchains are available for 32-bit and 64-bit x86 development
601 systems from the <filename>i686</filename> and
602 <filename>x86_64</filename> directories, respectively.
603 The toolchains the Yocto Project provides are based off the
604 <filename>core-image-sato</filename> image and contain
605 libraries appropriate for developing against that image.
606 Each type of development system supports five or more target
607 architectures.
608 </para>
610 <para>
611 The names of the tarball installer scripts are such that a
612 string representing the host system appears first in the
613 filename and then is immediately followed by a string
614 representing the target architecture.
615 </para>
617 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
618 poky-eglibc-&lt;<emphasis>host_system</emphasis>&gt;-&lt;<emphasis>image_type</emphasis>&gt;-&lt;<emphasis>arch</emphasis>&gt;-toolchain-&lt;<emphasis>release_version</emphasis>&gt;.sh
620 Where:
621 &lt;<emphasis>host_system</emphasis>&gt; is a string representing your development system:
623 i686 or x86_64.
625 &lt;<emphasis>image_type</emphasis>&gt; is a string representing the image you wish to
626 develop a Software Development Toolkit (SDK) for use against.
627 The Yocto Project builds toolchain installers using the
628 following BitBake command:
630 bitbake core-image-sato -c populate_sdk
632 &lt;<emphasis>arch</emphasis>&gt; is a string representing the tuned target architecture:
634 i586, x86_64, powerpc, mips, armv7a or armv5te
636 &lt;<emphasis>release_version</emphasis>&gt; is a string representing the release number of the
637 Yocto Project:
639 &DISTRO;, &DISTRO;+snapshot
640 </literallayout>
642 <para>
643 For example, the following toolchain installer is for a 64-bit
644 development host system and a i586-tuned target architecture
645 based off the SDK for <filename>core-image-sato</filename>:
646 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
647 poky-eglibc-x86_64-core-image-sato-i586-toolchain-&DISTRO;.sh
648 </literallayout>
649 </para>
651 <para>
652 Toolchains are self-contained and by default are installed into
653 <filename>/opt/poky</filename>.
654 However, when you run the toolchain installer, you can choose an
655 installation directory.
656 </para>
658 <para>
659 The following command shows how to run the installer given a toolchain tarball
660 for a 64-bit x86 development host system and a 32-bit x86 target architecture.
661 You must change the permissions on the toolchain
662 installer script so that it is executable.
663 </para>
665 <para>
666 The example assumes the toolchain installer is located in <filename>~/Downloads/</filename>.
667 <note>
668 If you do not have write permissions for the directory into which you are installing
669 the toolchain, the toolchain installer notifies you and exits.
670 Be sure you have write permissions in the directory and run the installer again.
671 </note>
672 </para>
674 <para>
675 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
676 $ ~/Downloads/poky-eglibc-x86_64-core-image-sato-i586-toolchain-&DISTRO;.sh
677 </literallayout>
678 </para>
680 <para>
681 For more information on how to install tarballs, see the
682 "<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_ADT_URL;#using-an-existing-toolchain-tarball'>Using a Cross-Toolchain Tarball</ulink>" and
683 "<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_ADT_URL;#using-the-toolchain-from-within-the-build-tree'>Using BitBake and the Build Directory</ulink>" sections in the Yocto Project Application Developer's Guide.
684 </para>
685 </section>
687 <section id='downloading-the-pre-built-linux-kernel'>
688 <title>Downloading the Pre-Built Linux Kernel</title>
690 <para>
691 You can download the pre-built Linux kernel suitable for running in the QEMU emulator from
692 <ulink url='&YOCTO_QEMU_DL_URL;'></ulink>.
693 Be sure to use the kernel that matches the architecture you want to simulate.
694 Download areas exist for the five supported machine architectures:
695 <filename>qemuarm</filename>, <filename>qemumips</filename>, <filename>qemuppc</filename>,
696 <filename>qemux86</filename>, and <filename>qemux86-64</filename>.
697 </para>
699 <para>
700 Most kernel files have one of the following forms:
701 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
702 *zImage-qemu&lt;<emphasis>arch</emphasis>&gt;.bin
703 vmlinux-qemu&lt;<emphasis>arch</emphasis>&gt;.bin
705 Where:
706 &lt;<emphasis>arch</emphasis>&gt; is a string representing the target architecture:
707 x86, x86-64, ppc, mips, or arm.
708 </literallayout>
709 </para>
711 <para>
712 You can learn more about downloading a Yocto Project kernel in the
713 "<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#local-kernel-files'>Yocto Project Kernel</ulink>"
714 bulleted item in the Yocto Project Development Manual.
715 </para>
716 </section>
718 <section id='downloading-the-filesystem'>
719 <title>Downloading the Filesystem</title>
721 <para>
722 You can also download the filesystem image suitable for your target architecture from
723 <ulink url='&YOCTO_QEMU_DL_URL;'></ulink>.
724 Again, be sure to use the filesystem that matches the architecture you want
725 to simulate.
726 </para>
728 <para>
729 The filesystem image has two tarball forms: <filename>ext3</filename> and
730 <filename>tar</filename>.
731 You must use the <filename>ext3</filename> form when booting an image using the
732 QEMU emulator.
733 The <filename>tar</filename> form can be flattened out in your host development system
734 and used for build purposes with the Yocto Project.
735 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
736 core-image-&lt;<emphasis>profile</emphasis>&gt;-qemu&lt;<emphasis>arch</emphasis>&gt;.ext3
737 core-image-&lt;<emphasis>profile</emphasis>&gt;-qemu&lt;<emphasis>arch</emphasis>&gt;.tar.bz2
739 Where:
740 &lt;<emphasis>profile</emphasis>&gt; is the filesystem image's profile:
741 lsb, lsb-dev, lsb-sdk, lsb-qt3, minimal, minimal-dev, sato,
742 sato-dev, or sato-sdk. For information on these types of image
743 profiles, see the "<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#ref-images'>Images</ulink>" chapter in the Yocto Project
744 Reference Manual.
746 &lt;<emphasis>arch</emphasis>&gt; is a string representing the target architecture:
747 x86, x86-64, ppc, mips, or arm.
748 </literallayout>
749 </para>
750 </section>
752 <section id='setting-up-the-environment-and-starting-the-qemu-emulator'>
753 <title>Setting Up the Environment and Starting the QEMU Emulator</title>
755 <para>
756 Before you start the QEMU emulator, you need to set up the emulation environment.
757 The following command form sets up the emulation environment.
758 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
759 $ source &YOCTO_ADTPATH_DIR;/environment-setup-&lt;<emphasis>arch</emphasis>&gt;-poky-linux-&lt;<emphasis>if</emphasis>&gt;
761 Where:
762 &lt;<emphasis>arch</emphasis>&gt; is a string representing the target architecture:
763 i586, x86_64, ppc603e, mips, or armv5te.
765 &lt;<emphasis>if</emphasis>&gt; is a string representing an embedded application binary interface.
766 Not all setup scripts include this string.
767 </literallayout>
768 </para>
770 <para>
771 Finally, this command form invokes the QEMU emulator
772 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
773 $ runqemu &lt;<emphasis>qemuarch</emphasis>&gt; &lt;<emphasis>kernel-image</emphasis>&gt; &lt;<emphasis>filesystem-image</emphasis>&gt;
775 Where:
776 &lt;<emphasis>qemuarch</emphasis>&gt; is a string representing the target architecture: qemux86, qemux86-64,
777 qemuppc, qemumips, or qemuarm.
779 &lt;<emphasis>kernel-image</emphasis>&gt; is the architecture-specific kernel image.
781 &lt;<emphasis>filesystem-image</emphasis>&gt; is the .ext3 filesystem image.
783 </literallayout>
784 </para>
786 <para>
787 Continuing with the example, the following two commands setup the emulation
788 environment and launch QEMU.
789 This example assumes the root filesystem (<filename>.ext3</filename> file) and
790 the pre-built kernel image file both reside in your home directory.
791 The kernel and filesystem are for a 32-bit target architecture.
792 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
793 $ cd $HOME
794 $ source &YOCTO_ADTPATH_DIR;/environment-setup-i586-poky-linux
795 $ runqemu qemux86 bzImage-qemux86.bin \
796 core-image-sato-qemux86.ext3
797 </literallayout>
798 </para>
800 <para>
801 The environment in which QEMU launches varies depending on the filesystem image and on the
802 target architecture.
803 For example, if you source the environment for the ARM target
804 architecture and then boot the minimal QEMU image, the emulator comes up in a new
805 shell in command-line mode.
806 However, if you boot the SDK image, QEMU comes up with a GUI.
807 <note>Booting the PPC image results in QEMU launching in the same shell in
808 command-line mode.</note>
809 </para>
810 </section>
811 </section>
814<section id='super-user'>
815 <title>Super User
818 <para>
819 This section
820 <footnote>
821 <para>
822 Kudos and thanks to Robert P. J. Day of
823 <ulink url=''>CrashCourse</ulink> for providing the basis
824 for this "expert" section with information from one of his
825 <ulink url=''>wiki</ulink>
826 pages.
827 </para>
828 </footnote>
829 gives you a minimal description of how to use the Yocto Project to build
830 images for Beaglebone hardware starting from scratch.
831 The steps were performed on a 64-bit Ubuntu 12.04 system that
832 has four cores.
833 </para>
835 <section id='getting-yocto'>
836 <title>Getting the Yocto Project</title>
838 <para>
839 Set up your
840 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#source-directory'>Source Directory</ulink>
841 by using Git to clone the <filename>poky</filename>
842 repository and then check out the release branch:
843 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
844 $ cd ~
845 $ git clone git://
846 $ cd poky
847 $ git checkout -b &DISTRO_NAME; origin/&DISTRO_NAME;
848 </literallayout>
849 </para>
850 </section>
852 <section id='setting-up-your-host'>
853 <title>Setting Up Your Host</title>
855 <para>
856 You need some packages for everything to work.
857 Rather than duplicate them here, look at the
858 "<link linkend='packages'>The Packages</link>"
859 section earlier in this quick start.
860 </para>
861 </section>
863 <section id='initializing-the-build-environment'>
864 <title>Initializing the Build Environment</title>
866 <para>
867 From the root directory of your
868 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#source-directory'>Source Directory</ulink>,
869 initialize your environment and provide a meaningful
870 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#build-directory'>Build Directory</ulink>
871 name:
872 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
873 $ source &OE_INIT_FILE; mybuilds
874 </literallayout>
875 At this point, the <filename>mybuilds</filename> directory has
876 been created for you and it is now your current working directory.
877 If you do not provide your own directory name,
878 it defaults to <filename>build</filename>,
879 which is inside the Source Directory.
880 </para>
881 </section>
883 <section id='configuring-the-local.conf-file'>
884 <title>Configuring the local.conf File</title>
886 <para>
887 Initializing the build environment creates a
888 <filename>conf/local.conf</filename> configuration file
889 in the Build Directory.
890 You need to manually edit this file to specify the machine you
891 are building and to optimize your build time.
892 Here are the minimal changes to make:
893 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
895 PARALLEL_MAKE = "-j 8"
896 MACHINE ?= "beaglebone"
897 </literallayout>
898 Briefly, set
899 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#var-BB_NUMBER_THREADS'><filename>BB_NUMBER_THREADS</filename></ulink>
900 and
901 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#var-PARALLEL_MAKE'><filename>PARALLEL_MAKE</filename></ulink> to
902 twice your host processor's number of cores.
903 </para>
905 <para>
906 A good deal that goes into a Yocto Project build is simply
907 downloading all of the source tarballs.
908 Maybe you have been working with another build system
909 (OpenEmbedded or Angstrom) for which you have built up a sizable
910 directory of source tarballs.
911 Or, perhaps someone else has such a directory for which you have
912 read access.
913 If so, you can save time by adding statements to your
914 configuration file so that the build process checks local
915 directories first for existing tarballs before checking the
916 Internet.
917 Here is an efficient way to set it up in your
918 <filename>local.conf</filename> file:
919 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
920 SOURCE_MIRROR_URL ?= "file:///home/you/your-download-dir/"
921 INHERIT += "own-mirrors"
923 # BB_NO_NETWORK = "1"
924 </literallayout>
925 </para>
927 <para>
928 In the previous example, the
929 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#var-BB_GENERATE_MIRROR_TARBALLS'><filename>BB_GENERATE_MIRROR_TARBALLS</filename></ulink>
930 variable causes the OpenEmbedded build system to generate tarballs
931 of the Git repositories and store them in the
932 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#var-DL_DIR'><filename>DL_DIR</filename></ulink>
933 directory.
934 Due to performance reasons, generating and storing these tarballs
935 is not the build system's default behavior.
936 </para>
938 <para>
939 You can also use the
940 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_REF_URL;#var-PREMIRRORS'><filename>PREMIRRORS</filename></ulink>
941 variable.
942 For an example, see the variable's glossary entry in the
943 Yocto Project Reference Manual.
944 </para>
945 </section>
947 <section id='building-the-image'>
948 <title>Building the Image</title>
950 <para>
951 At this point, you need to select an image to build for the
952 Beaglebone hardware.
953 If this is your first build using the Yocto Project, you should try
954 the smallest and simplest image:
955 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
956 $ bitbake core-image-minimal
957 </literallayout>
958 Now you just wait for the build to finish.
959 </para>
961 <para>
962 Here are some variations on the build process that could be helpful:
963 <itemizedlist>
964 <listitem><para>Fetch all the necessary sources without starting
965 the build:
966 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
967 $ bitbake -c fetchall core-image-minimal
968 </literallayout>
969 This variation guarantees that you have all the sources for
970 that BitBake target should you disconnect from the net and
971 want to do the build later offline.</para></listitem>
972 <listitem><para>Specify to continue the build even if BitBake
973 encounters an error.
974 By default, BitBake aborts the build when it encounters an
975 error.
976 This command keeps a faulty build going:
977 <literallayout class='monospaced'>
978 $ bitbake -k core-image-minimal
979 </literallayout></para></listitem>
980 </itemizedlist>
981 </para>
983 <para>
984 Once you have your image, you can take steps to load and boot it on
985 the target hardware.
986 </para>
988 <para>
989 You can learn about BitBake in general by reading the
990 <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_BB_URL;'>BitBake User Manual</ulink>.
991 </para>
992 </section>
997vim: expandtab tw=80 ts=4