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<!DOCTYPE chapter PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN"
"http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.2/docbookx.dtd"
[<!ENTITY % poky SYSTEM "../poky.ent"> %poky; ] >

<chapter id='using-the-command-line'>
<title>Using the Command Line</title>

    <para>
        Recall that earlier the manual discussed how to use an existing toolchain 
        tarball that had been installed into <filename>/opt/poky</filename>, 
        which is outside of the 
        <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#build-directory'>Build Directory</ulink>
        (see the section "<link linkend='using-an-existing-toolchain-tarball'>Using a Cross-Toolchain Tarball)</link>".  
        And, that sourcing your architecture-specific environment setup script 
        initializes a suitable cross-toolchain development environment.  
        During the setup, locations for the compiler, QEMU scripts, QEMU binary, 
        a special version of <filename>pkgconfig</filename> and other useful 
        utilities are added to the <filename>PATH</filename> variable.
        Variables to assist <filename>pkgconfig</filename> and <filename>autotools</filename> 
        are also defined so that, 
        for example, <filename>configure.sh</filename> can find pre-generated 
        test results for tests that need target hardware on which to run.  
        These conditions allow you to easily use the toolchain outside of the 
        OpenEmbedded build environment on both autotools-based projects and 
        Makefile-based projects.
    </para>

<section id='autotools-based-projects'>
<title>Autotools-Based Projects</title>

    <para>
        Once you have a suitable cross-toolchain installed, it is very easy to 
        develop a project outside of the OpenEmbedded build system.
        This section presents a simple "Helloworld" example that shows how 
        to set up, compile, and run the project.
    </para>

    <section id='creating-and-running-a-project-based-on-gnu-autotools'>
        <title>Creating and Running a Project Based on GNU Autotools</title>

        <para>
            Follow these steps to create a simple autotools-based project:
            <orderedlist>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Create your directory:</emphasis>
                    Create a clean directory for your project and then make 
                    that directory your working location:
                    <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ mkdir $HOME/helloworld
     $ cd $HOME/helloworld
                    </literallayout></para></listitem>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Populate the directory:</emphasis>
                    Create <filename>hello.c</filename>, <filename>Makefile.am</filename>,
                    and <filename>configure.in</filename> files as follows:
                    <itemizedlist>
                        <listitem><para>For <filename>hello.c</filename>, include
                            these lines:
                            <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     #include &lt;stdio.h&gt;

     main()
        {
           printf("Hello World!\n");
        }
                            </literallayout></para></listitem>
                        <listitem><para>For <filename>Makefile.am</filename>,
                            include these lines:
                            <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     bin_PROGRAMS = hello
     hello_SOURCES = hello.c
                            </literallayout></para></listitem>
                        <listitem><para>For <filename>configure.in</filename>,
                            include these lines:
                            <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     AC_INIT(hello.c)
     AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE(hello,0.1)
     AC_PROG_CC
     AC_PROG_INSTALL
     AC_OUTPUT(Makefile)
                            </literallayout></para></listitem>
                    </itemizedlist></para></listitem>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Source the cross-toolchain 
                    environment setup file:</emphasis>
                    Installation of the cross-toolchain creates a cross-toolchain
                    environment setup script in <filename>/opt/poky/&lt;release&gt;</filename>.
                    Before you can use the tools to develop your project, you must 
                    source this setup script.
                    The script begins with the string "environment-setup" and contains
                    the machine architecture, which is followed by the string 
                    "poky-linux".
                    Here is an example for an environment setup using the 
                    32-bit Intel x86 Architecture and using the 
                    &DISTRO_NAME; Yocto Project release:
                    <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ source /opt/poky/&DISTRO;/environment-setup-i586-poky-linux
                    </literallayout></para></listitem>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Generate the local <filename>aclocal.m4</filename>
                    files and create the configure script:</emphasis>
                    The following GNU Autotools generate the local 
                    <filename>aclocal.m4</filename> files and create the 
                    configure script:
                    <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ aclocal
     $ autoconf
                    </literallayout></para></listitem>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Generate files needed by GNU
                    coding standards:</emphasis>
                    GNU coding standards require certain files in order for the 
                    project to be compliant. 
                    This command creates those files:
                    <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ touch NEWS README AUTHORS ChangeLog
                    </literallayout></para></listitem>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Generate the <filename>configure</filename>
                    file:</emphasis>
                    This command generates the <filename>configure</filename>:
                    <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ automake -a
                    </literallayout></para></listitem>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Cross-compile the project:</emphasis>
                    This command compiles the project using the cross-compiler:
                    <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ ./configure ${CONFIGURE_FLAGS}
                    </literallayout></para></listitem>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Make and install the project:</emphasis>
                    These two commands generate and install the project into the 
                    destination directory:
                    <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ make
     $ make install DESTDIR=./tmp
                    </literallayout></para></listitem>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Verify the installation:</emphasis>
                    This command is a simple way to verify the installation
                    of your project. 
                    Running the command prints the architecture on which 
                    the binary file can run.
                    This architecture should be the same architecture that 
                    the installed cross-toolchain supports.
                    <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ file ./tmp/usr/local/bin/hello
                    </literallayout></para></listitem>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Execute your project:</emphasis>
                    To execute the project in the shell, simply enter the name. 
                    You could also copy the binary to the actual target hardware
                    and run the project there as well:
                    <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ ./hello
                    </literallayout>
                    As expected, the project displays the "Hello World!" message.
                    </para></listitem>
            </orderedlist>
        </para>
    </section>

    <section id='passing-host-options'>
        <title>Passing Host Options</title>

        <para>
            For an Autotools-based project, you can use the cross-toolchain by just 
            passing the appropriate host option to <filename>configure.sh</filename>.
            The host option you use is derived from the name of the environment setup 
            script in <filename>/opt/poky</filename> resulting from installation of the 
            cross-toolchain tarball.
            For example, the host option for an ARM-based target that uses the GNU EABI 
            is <filename>armv5te-poky-linux-gnueabi</filename>.
            You will notice that the name of the script is 
            <filename>environment-setup-armv5te-poky-linux-gnueabi</filename>.
            Thus, the following command works:
            <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ ./configure --host=armv5te-poky-linux-gnueabi \
        --with-libtool-sysroot=&lt;sysroot-dir&gt;
            </literallayout>
        </para>

        <para>
            This single command updates your project and rebuilds it using the appropriate 
            cross-toolchain tools.
            <note>
                If <filename>configure</filename> script results in problems recognizing the 
                <filename>--with-libtool-sysroot=&lt;sysroot-dir&gt;</filename> option, 
                regenerate the script to enable the support by doing the following and then 
                re-running the script:
                <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ libtoolize --automake
     $ aclocal -I ${OECORE_NATIVE_SYSROOT}/usr/share/aclocal \
        [-I &lt;dir_containing_your_project-specific_m4_macros&gt;]
     $ autoconf
     $ autoheader
     $ automake -a
                </literallayout>
            </note>    
        </para>
    </section>   
</section>

<section id='makefile-based-projects'>
<title>Makefile-Based Projects</title>

    <para>
        For a Makefile-based project, you use the cross-toolchain by making sure 
        the tools are used.  
        You can do this as follows:
        <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     CC=arm-poky-linux-gnueabi-gcc
     LD=arm-poky-linux-gnueabi-ld
<!DOCTYPE chapter PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN"
"http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.2/docbookx.dtd"
[<!ENTITY % poky SYSTEM "../poky.ent"> %poky; ] >

<chapter id='using-the-command-line'>
<title>Using the Command Line</title>

    <para>
        Recall that earlier the manual discussed how to use an existing toolchain 
        tarball that had been installed into <filename>/opt/poky</filename>, 
        which is outside of the 
        <ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#build-directory'>Build Directory</ulink>
        (see the section "<link linkend='using-an-existing-toolchain-tarball'>Using a Cross-Toolchain Tarball)</link>".  
        And, that sourcing your architecture-specific environment setup script 
        initializes a suitable cross-toolchain development environment.  
        During the setup, locations for the compiler, QEMU scripts, QEMU binary, 
        a special version of <filename>pkgconfig</filename> and other useful 
        utilities are added to the <filename>PATH</filename> variable.
        Variables to assist <filename>pkgconfig</filename> and <filename>autotools</filename> 
        are also defined so that, 
        for example, <filename>configure.sh</filename> can find pre-generated 
        test results for tests that need target hardware on which to run.  
        These conditions allow you to easily use the toolchain outside of the 
        OpenEmbedded build environment on both autotools-based projects and 
        Makefile-based projects.
    </para>

<section id='autotools-based-projects'>
<title>Autotools-Based Projects</title>

    <para>
        Once you have a suitable cross-toolchain installed, it is very easy to 
        develop a project outside of the OpenEmbedded build system.
        This section presents a simple "Helloworld" example that shows how 
        to set up, compile, and run the project.
    </para>

    <section id='creating-and-running-a-project-based-on-gnu-autotools'>
        <title>Creating and Running a Project Based on GNU Autotools</title>

        <para>
            Follow these steps to create a simple autotools-based project:
            <orderedlist>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Create your directory:</emphasis>
                    Create a clean directory for your project and then make 
                    that directory your working location:
                    <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ mkdir $HOME/helloworld
     $ cd $HOME/helloworld
                    </literallayout></para></listitem>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Populate the directory:</emphasis>
                    Create <filename>hello.c</filename>, <filename>Makefile.am</filename>,
                    and <filename>configure.in</filename> files as follows:
                    <itemizedlist>
                        <listitem><para>For <filename>hello.c</filename>, include
                            these lines:
                            <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     #include &lt;stdio.h&gt;

     main()
        {
           printf("Hello World!\n");
        }
                            </literallayout></para></listitem>
                        <listitem><para>For <filename>Makefile.am</filename>,
                            include these lines:
                            <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     bin_PROGRAMS = hello
     hello_SOURCES = hello.c
                            </literallayout></para></listitem>
                        <listitem><para>For <filename>configure.in</filename>,
                            include these lines:
                            <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     AC_INIT(hello.c)
     AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE(hello,0.1)
     AC_PROG_CC
     AC_PROG_INSTALL
     AC_OUTPUT(Makefile)
                            </literallayout></para></listitem>
                    </itemizedlist></para></listitem>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Source the cross-toolchain 
                    environment setup file:</emphasis>
                    Installation of the cross-toolchain creates a cross-toolchain
                    environment setup script in <filename>/opt/poky/&lt;release&gt;</filename>.
                    Before you can use the tools to develop your project, you must 
                    source this setup script.
                    The script begins with the string "environment-setup" and contains
                    the machine architecture, which is followed by the string 
                    "poky-linux".
                    Here is an example for an environment setup using the 
                    32-bit Intel x86 Architecture and using the 
                    &DISTRO_NAME; Yocto Project release:
                    <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ source /opt/poky/&DISTRO;/environment-setup-i586-poky-linux
                    </literallayout></para></listitem>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Generate the local <filename>aclocal.m4</filename>
                    files and create the configure script:</emphasis>
                    The following GNU Autotools generate the local 
                    <filename>aclocal.m4</filename> files and create the 
                    configure script:
                    <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ aclocal
     $ autoconf
                    </literallayout></para></listitem>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Generate files needed by GNU
                    coding standards:</emphasis>
                    GNU coding standards require certain files in order for the 
                    project to be compliant. 
                    This command creates those files:
                    <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ touch NEWS README AUTHORS ChangeLog
                    </literallayout></para></listitem>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Generate the <filename>configure</filename>
                    file:</emphasis>
                    This command generates the <filename>configure</filename>:
                    <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ automake -a
                    </literallayout></para></listitem>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Cross-compile the project:</emphasis>
                    This command compiles the project using the cross-compiler:
                    <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ ./configure ${CONFIGURE_FLAGS}
                    </literallayout></para></listitem>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Make and install the project:</emphasis>
                    These two commands generate and install the project into the 
                    destination directory:
                    <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ make
     $ make install DESTDIR=./tmp
                    </literallayout></para></listitem>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Verify the installation:</emphasis>
                    This command is a simple way to verify the installation
                    of your project. 
                    Running the command prints the architecture on which 
                    the binary file can run.
                    This architecture should be the same architecture that 
                    the installed cross-toolchain supports.
                    <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ file ./tmp/usr/local/bin/hello
                    </literallayout></para></listitem>
                <listitem><para><emphasis>Execute your project:</emphasis>
                    To execute the project in the shell, simply enter the name. 
                    You could also copy the binary to the actual target hardware
                    and run the project there as well:
                    <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ ./hello
                    </literallayout>
                    As expected, the project displays the "Hello World!" message.
                    </para></listitem>
            </orderedlist>
        </para>
    </section>

    <section id='passing-host-options'>
        <title>Passing Host Options</title>

        <para>
            For an Autotools-based project, you can use the cross-toolchain by just 
            passing the appropriate host option to <filename>configure.sh</filename>.
            The host option you use is derived from the name of the environment setup 
            script in <filename>/opt/poky</filename> resulting from installation of the 
            cross-toolchain tarball.
            For example, the host option for an ARM-based target that uses the GNU EABI 
            is <filename>armv5te-poky-linux-gnueabi</filename>.
            You will notice that the name of the script is 
            <filename>environment-setup-armv5te-poky-linux-gnueabi</filename>.
            Thus, the following command works:
            <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ ./configure --host=armv5te-poky-linux-gnueabi \
        --with-libtool-sysroot=&lt;sysroot-dir&gt;
            </literallayout>
        </para>

        <para>
            This single command updates your project and rebuilds it using the appropriate 
            cross-toolchain tools.
            <note>
                If <filename>configure</filename> script results in problems recognizing the 
                <filename>--with-libtool-sysroot=&lt;sysroot-dir&gt;</filename> option, 
                regenerate the script to enable the support by doing the following and then 
                re-running the script:
                <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     $ libtoolize --automake
     $ aclocal -I ${OECORE_NATIVE_SYSROOT}/usr/share/aclocal \
        [-I &lt;dir_containing_your_project-specific_m4_macros&gt;]
     $ autoconf
     $ autoheader
     $ automake -a
                </literallayout>
            </note>    
        </para>
    </section>   
</section>

<section id='makefile-based-projects'>
<title>Makefile-Based Projects</title>

    <para>
        For a Makefile-based project, you use the cross-toolchain by making sure 
        the tools are used.  
        You can do this as follows:
        <literallayout class='monospaced'>
     CC=arm-poky-linux-gnueabi-gcc
     LD=arm-poky-linux-gnueabi-ld
     CFLAGS=”${CFLAGS} --sysroot=&lt;sysroot-dir&gt;”
     CXXFLAGS=”${CXXFLAGS} --sysroot=&lt;sysroot-dir&gt;”
        </literallayout>
    </para>
</section>

</chapter>
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