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2 GNU Free Documentation License
3 Version 1.2, November 2002
6 Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
7 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
8 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
9 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
14The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
15functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
16assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
17with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
18Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
19to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
20for modifications made by others.
22This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
23works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
24complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
25license designed for free software.
27We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
28software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
29program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
30software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;
31it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
32whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
33principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
38This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
39contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
40distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a
41world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
42work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below,
43refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a
44licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you
45copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
46under copyright law.
48A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
49Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
50modifications and/or translated into another language.
52A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
53the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
54publishers or authors of the Document to the Document`s overall subject
55(or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly
56within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a
57textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
58mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
59connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
60commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
63The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
64are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
65that says that the Document is released under this License. If a
66section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not
67allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero
68Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant
69Sections then there are none.
71The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,
72as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
73the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may
74be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
76A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
77represented in a format whose specification is available to the
78general public, that is suitable for revising the document
79straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
80pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
81drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
82for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
83to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
84format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart
85or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
86An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount
87of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
89Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
90ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
91or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
92HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of
93transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats
94include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
95proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
96processing tools are not generally available, and the
97machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
98processors for output purposes only.
100The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
101plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
102this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in
103formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means
104the text near the most prominent appearance of the work`s title,
105preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
107A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose
108title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
109text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a
110specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements",
111"Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title"
112of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
113section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.
115The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
116states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty
117Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
118License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
119implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
120no effect on the meaning of this License.
125You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
126commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
127copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
128to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
129conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use
130technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
131copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept
132compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough
133number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
135You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
136you may publicly display copies.
141If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
142printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
143Document`s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
144copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
145Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
146the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
147you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present
148the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
149visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
150Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
151the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
152as verbatim copying in other respects.
154If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
155legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
156reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
159If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
160more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
161copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
162a computer-network location from which the general network-using
163public has access to download using public-standard network protocols
164a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.
165If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,
166when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure
167that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
168location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an
169Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
170edition to the public.
172It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
173Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
174them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
179You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
180the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
181the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
182Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
183and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
184of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
186A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
187 from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
188 (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
189 of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version
190 if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
191B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
192 responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
193 Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
194 Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
195 unless they release you from this requirement.
196C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
197 Modified Version, as the publisher.
198D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
199E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
200 adjacent to the other copyright notices.
201F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
202 giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
203 terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
204G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
205 and required Cover Texts given in the Document`s license notice.
206H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
207I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add
208 to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
209 publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
210 there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one
211 stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
212 given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
213 Version as stated in the previous sentence.
214J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
215 public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
216 the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
217 it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section.
218 You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
219 least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
220 publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
221K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
222 Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
223 the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
224 and/or dedications given therein.
225L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
226 unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers
227 or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
228M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section
229 may not be included in the Modified Version.
230N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements"
231 or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
232O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
234If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
235appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
236copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
237of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the
238list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version`s license notice.
239These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
241You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
242nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
243parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
244been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
247You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
248passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
249of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
250Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
251through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
252includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
253by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
254you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
255permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
257The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
258give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
259imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
264You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
265License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
266versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
267Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
268list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
269license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
271The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
272multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
273copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
274different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
275adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
276author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
277Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
278Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
280In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History"
281in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
282"History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements",
283and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections
284Entitled "Endorsements".
289You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
290released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
291License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
292the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
293verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
295You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
296it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
297License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all
298other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
303A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
304and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
305distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright
306resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
307of the compilation`s users beyond what the individual works permit.
308When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
309apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
310derivative works of the Document.
312If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
313copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
314the entire aggregate, the Document`s Cover Texts may be placed on
315covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
316electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
317Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
323Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
324distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
325Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
326permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
327translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
328original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
329translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
330Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
331the original English version of this License and the original versions
332of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between
333the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
334or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
336If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
337"Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
338its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
344You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
345as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to
346copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
347automatically terminate your rights under this License. However,
348parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
349License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
350parties remain in full compliance.
355The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
356of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new
357versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
358differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See
361Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
362If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
363License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
364following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
365of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
366Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
367number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
368as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
371ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
373To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
374the License in the document and put the following copyright and
375license notices just after the title page:
377 Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.
378 Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
379 under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
380 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
381 with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
382 A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
383 Free Documentation License".
385If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
386replace the "with...Texts." line with this:
388 with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
389 Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
391If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
392combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
395If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
396recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
397free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
398to permit their use in free software.